We all need body fat – most of us just have too much of it.
Body fat percentage is a great measure of fitness level since it is the only body measurement which directly calculates a person’s relative body composition without regard to height or weight.
The widely used body mass index (BMI) provides a measure that allows for an estimate of healthy weight of an individual based on their height. While BMI largely increases as adiposity increases, due to differences in body composition, other indicators of body fat give more accurate results; for example, individuals with greater muscle mass or larger bones will have higher BMIs.
Women, during the course of their life may need to sustain an embryo and then a baby from their own energy reserves. So they accumulate more body fat than men as some of it is stored energy to help nourish a child through its development. This is not to say that men don’t also use body fat as stored energy. Men just need less of it.
According to the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), body fat standards can differ based on age, gender, race, ethnicity and even activity level. However, to simplify the various body fat standards, ACSM offers the version as shown below. The leanest athletes typically compete at levels of about 6–13% for men or 14–20% for women. Bodybuilders may compete at ranges even lower than these levels.
There are a number of methods for determining body fat percentage. This includes less expensive, but less accurate, methods such as measurement with calipers or through the use of bioelectrical impedance analysis. Then there are very precise methods, which are also very expensive costing upwards of several hundred dollars. These include whole-body air displacement plethysmography, near-infrared interactance and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Fortunately, advances in technology are offering additional options.
Scales that measure body fat do this by sending a low electrical current through one foot and reading the current with a sensor under the other foot. Most of this current will flow through your “lean mass” as this is the most conductive, so none of the current will actually flow through your fat content. Your percentage of fat is then estimated, and highly dependent on variables such as level of hydration, bone density, etc. The accuracy of body fat measurements provided by scales should therefore be taken with a grain of salt as they can be inconsistent and innacurate at times.
Essential reading: A roundup of the best smart scales on the market
Most smart scales measure more than just body fat. They measure weight (unsurprisingly…), calculate body mass index (BMI), and some calculate lean mass, water weight and various other metrics. Smart scales also have the ability to track and store data which makes the job of keeping track of your progress that much easier.
There is an increasing range of smart scales on the market today which makes it increasingly difficult to choose the right one to suit your needs. The most recent additions, launched at CES 2016, include the Polar Balance Scale and Under Armour Smart Scale. They are up against the more established Withings Smart Body Analyser (our choice), the Fitbit Aria scale and a number of other contenders.
For most people smart scales should provide a sufficiently precise estimate of body fat. For those more serious about their health and fitness, or for the gym rats among us, there is another option.
When you think of fitness trackers, Skulpt products don’t readily come to mind. That’s because they’re a different breed, that measure metrics that you wouldn’t normally measure with more ‘traditional’ activity devices. Rather than monitoring daily activities, such as steps taken and distance traveled, the Skulpt Chisel measures muscle quality and body fat percentage.
The Chisel follows in the footsteps of the original first generation Aim device, which we have been using for over a year now. The Aim was made after a successful IndieGogo campaign in 2014. That campaign set out with the goal of raising $100,000 in funding, but by the time it was complete, the company had raised nearly $400,000.
Essential reading: Skulpt Chisel, the leaner and lighter body fat tracker
Just like the original device, Chisel has 12 sensors on the back with optimized configurations and frequencies. It sends a small current past the subcutaneous fat and through the muscle fibers, picking up thousands of data points per second. The technology then evaluates the flow of that current to measure the fat percentage per muscle, and rates that muscle’s fitness.
Chisel measures 24 different muscles on your body, providing the fat percentage and the MQ value for each muscle. The 24 muscles are (both left and right side): abs, biceps, calves, chest, forearms, glutes, hamstrings, lower back, quads, shoulders, triceps, and upper back.
With regular use, this little tracker will give you greater insight into your fitness and enable you to precisely measure the results of your workouts. This will help you to understand where exactly you are losing fat and gaining muscle. Next time you head off to the gym, you will have a much greater understanding on which muscles you need to place most focus on.
We are very excited where this technology will lead us, and look forward to further innovative products in this area.
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